This means that social inequalities among young people are accentuated depending on their social origins, their area of residence Dulin, Dulin, A. Prior to the s, the dominant approach portrayed youth as a homogeneous social group characterised by a particular lifestyle and specific behaviour different to the rest of the population. Later, sociologists tended to depict youth as an almost uniform life stage between childhood and adulthood. The focus resided on the transition between these two stages, via the reaching of certain socio-economic milestones end of studies, independent accommodation, marriage, parenthood, etc.
This approach brought to fore the differences — inequalities — between the socio-economic origins of young people regarding the continuing Bourdieusian themes of cultural capital and social reproduction. However, it should be pointed out that in France there is generally a lack of official data collection pertaining to race, in accordance with the republican constitution, which does not allow discrimination on the grounds of ethnic origin.
Comment la France Divise sa Jeunesse.
Paris : Eyrolles. Quels constats? Consequently, academic choices are generally seen as decisive and irreversible with young people experiencing a lot of pressure to succeed. Van de Velde demonstrates that this is still largely the case and that the modus operandi of most state benefits remains based on a model of the family helping young people. Thus, young people are obliged to remain in a position of family dependence before becoming financially independent adults.
What is more, during a period of austerity and recession, academic success is far more important to find a job than during less difficult economic times, which leads to greater competition at school and even more stress for pupils and students Van de Velde, Van de Velde, C. This was largely due to the worsening economic situation and because the difficulties associated with youth e.
taylor.evolt.org/nutej-casatejada-ligar.php Since then, successive French governments have continued to regard young people as a problem Charvet, Charvet, D. Jeunesse, le Devoir d'Avenir. In the twenty-first century, there has been a marked increase in political interest in youth and youth policy. Politiques de Jeunesse: Le Grand Malentendu.
Paris : Injep and L'Harmattan. This proliferation results partially from the especially vulnerable situation many young people are in as a result of the enduring unfavourable economic context in France. In youth policy terms, Nicolas Sarkozy's centre-right presidency — was characterised by two main themes: youth justice and youth unemployment. Nicolas Sarkozy June 20 View all notes A few days later, in the same neighbourhood, he proclaimed that he would clean up the rundown social housing estates with a high-pressure cleaner. Nicolas Sarkozy 29 June View all notes Nicolas Sarkozy went on to assert, in September , that in order to protect the safety of French citizens he would come down hard on delinquents, travellers and illegal immigrants.
Nicolas Sarkozy 9 September Nicolas Sarkozy 26 October View all notes The next day, two teenagers were accidentally killed and another injured on their way back after playing football in the Parisian suburb Clichy-Sous-Bois. Over the next three weeks, there followed extensive urban violence which developed into riots in Parisian and provincial suburbs, with a national state of emergency being declared on 8 November Nicolas Sarkozy 31 October Paris : Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle.
Therefore, regarding youth justice, the image of youth as a problem persisted and the policies became more authoritarian. The country was to witness the hardening and widening of youth justice measures, starting with the introduction of minimum sentences that did not take into account the fact that the accused were minors and an extension of the length of time 16—year-olds could be detained in police custody.
The move was also seen as an attempt by Nicolas Sarkozy to energise the second half of his five-year presidential term of office that was continuing to suffer due to the recession. The main goal was to get , young people into training or a job before mid This was to be achieved via a series of specific social inclusion and job accompaniment schemes aimed at different sets of young people having difficulty entering the labour market. Companies received financial incentives to take on young people either as trainees or as workers.
The government also set the target of 50, support contracts Contrats d'Accompagnement for unqualified young workers to get them into vocational training and introduced financial incentives for companies to give interns permanent contracts. Furthermore, it set the target of creating , work contracts Contrats Pro via bonuses for businesses, giving a contract to a worker aged under Thus, a series of targeted schemes was launched in order to reduce the burgeoning issue of youth unemployment during the economic crisis.
The recommendations emphasised the importance of having a new type of coherent, cross-departmental youth policy and that all actors — the State, local authorities, social partners, associations, educational establishments, etc.
He underlined the urgency of developing such an unprecedented integrated youth policy over the long term, especially due to the economic, social and moral crises Hirsch, Hirsch, M. Commission de concertation sur la politique de la jeunesse. The Green Paper contained 57 youth policy proposals clearly centred on getting young people into jobs. In terms of concrete policies, a key policy associated with the Plan Jeune was a very controversial social inclusion income supplement.
It was extended to under year-olds in September the RSA jeune.
Arbeidsonafhankelijk basis inkomen, arbeidsmoraal en arbeidsplicht in economische theorieen. The first groups of disabled civilians essentially brought together people with physical disabilities, mainly caused by osseous and pulmonary tuberculosis, and later on by poliomyelitis. Hrsg , , Zeitpioniere. Another characteristic common to several of these initiatives is their links with European or international networks involved with the same issues. Centre culturel international.
The thinking behind it was to encourage young people to enter the labour market, to accelerate the return to work of unemployed young people and to reduce social exclusion. Another aspect to youth policy initiated by Martin Hirsch was the voluntary citizenship work scheme service civique for 16—year-olds that came into being in May Young people are encouraged to participate for 6 to 12 months in a citizenship project, via associations or local authorities and they received a modest indemnity it is not a work contract. In this way, during the first two years of Nicolas Sarkozy's presidency, young people had been first commonly depicted as delinquents and the policy response lay in the criminalisation of juvenile delinquency.
As the economy and the condition of youth worsened, young people increasingly came to be portrayed as a problem regarding joblessness.
More and more targeted measures were introduced to encourage the entry of young people into the labour market. Indeed, the presidency of Nicolas Sarkozy in terms of youth policy was marked by the proliferation of targeted schemes and measures. The recommendations in the Green Paper on Youth from Martin Hirsch represented a definite shift away from traditional, fragmented French youth policy.
They implied a move away from the convention that State help for children and young people in France be enacted and executed through the family unit benefits and allowances being paid to the parents, via means-testing of the parental tax returns — a corporatist welfare model — to a more Northern European social democratic model, where the young person is personally responsible Esping-Andersen, Esping-Andersen, G.
However, most of these recommendations would not be enacted. Furthermore, whilst Martin Hirsch had urged that all young people, regardless of their work experience should benefit from the RSA jeune i.
In terms of reducing social justice and increasing autonomy, this was a real policy weakness since it was not universal and it excluded many vulnerable young people. Other austerity measures enacted by the Nicolas Sarkozy Government included a reduction in the budgets granted to pre-emptive educative help for young people with learning difficulties and other preventative measures, as well as non-formal education projects for youth.
The targeted schemes introduced by Nicolas Sarkozy aimed at enabling young people to get a permanent job contract are also often described as a failure Perrin, with the exception of apprenticeships. On the one hand, by the end of , fewer than young people had obtained a permanent contract via the schemes, rather than the 50, initially forecast by the government. Only 10, young people had benefited from the RSA scheme, rather the ,target set by the government Perrin, partially due to the very strict eligibility criteria, thus locking out the neediest young people.
On the other hand, youth unemployment continued to rise during Nicolas Sarkozy's presidency at a greater rate than for the French population as a whole. Furthermore, critics claim that such projects tended to stigmatise the youths involved Fourneyron, Fourneyron, V.
Etat-providence et les jeunes (French Edition) [Tom Chevalier] on ralfeipebukil.gq * FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. La jeunesse est de plus en plus présente. Keywords:: youth policy, France, unemployment, poverty, welfare state, austerity . austerity Europe – the focus of this special issue of International Journal of Adolescence and Youth. .. from the RSA jeune (i.e. it should be universal); only a diluted version was introduced with very strict .. L'État-Providence et les Jeunes.
By the time the RSA jeune and the Service civique came into effect, Martin Hirsch had already left office after just over a year in the position as High Commissioner for Youth — he had not obtained from the government the 1. In France a populationist and nationalist drift is a reply to the menace of totalitarisms. Naissance de tat providence Pierre Guillaume.
Naissance de l'Etat providence [article] Pierre Guillaume. Regards sur l'Europe de Notes 1.
Khoury Philip S. Voir Rosanvallon et Harshav Elizabeth F. Femmes, Genre, Histoire. The colonial Welfare state in Syria