Conquering America

European colonization of the Americas
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However, they do 'healthier' versions of fast food classics such as gluten-free chicken nuggets, fish finger wraps, oven-baked waffle fries and coleslaw. Do you want to comment on this article?

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You need to be signed in for this feature. The fast food newcomers conquering America in Gallery View. Expand View. From stone-baked pizzas that are ready in minutes to Vietnamese salad boxes we take a look at fast food's rising stars, set to make ground in They also do smoked Buffalo wings, pulled pork and chicken breasts. Asian Box was founded in to cater to the health-conscious lunch crowd with made-to-order Vietnamese salad boxes, inspired by Asian street-food vendors.

Currently no Asian Box outpost has freezers and staff are allowed paid mental health breaks at little to no notice.

Wayback Burger, founded in Newark, Delaware in , has enjoyed steady growth since opening and shows no signs of slowing down. In the early s they began franchising across America and in announced they were going international. What followed was restaurant openings in Argentina, Brunei, Kuwait, Malaysia, Morocco, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and mostly recently The Netherlands, with the company hitting a total of outposts in Wayback Burgers is the go-to place for double cheeseburgers and decadent sides.

Also, on the menu are chicken burgers, sandwiches and hot dogs. But from small Midwest roots, this Tex-Mex fast-casual chain has grown to 67 restaurants across 13 states. With strategic franchise growth planned for , including new restaurants in Texas and Minnesota, Taco Bell had better watch out. At Pancheros Mexican Grill burritos are made with fresh pressed tortillas, with burrito bowls, salads, tacos, tortilla chips and quesadillas also available. Make the meal your own with a choice of fillings, including marinated and grilled steak, pork carnitas, chicken or plant-based meat substitute, whole pinto or black beans, rice, cheese, sour cream, guacamole and salsa.

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So, the first truly global trade flourished on addictive substances—alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, and sugar. This morning it looks recovered. Terms of use Privacy policy Disclaimer. Flocks of more than 25 are found where ever a good food source is available, usually grain elevators and grain storage areas. The species continues to spread across the continent and grow in abundance click on map above to see an animation of the range expansion.

While native populations decreased ninety percent, Europeans took gold, silver, and nutritional new to them foods, such as potatoes, tomatoes, chiles, squash, vanilla, turkey, corn, and cacao to make chocolate. Indigenous Americans received, in return, European diseases—smallpox, measles, influenza, bubonic plagues, cholera, chicken pox, whooping cough, diphtheria, and tropical malaria. There were many long-term consequences of the European conquest of the Americas and the global exchange that ensued.

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It took the Spanish only a few years to find and plunder the two wealthiest empires in the Americas. Huge silver mines found in Mexico and Peru in the midth century meant that Spain instantly became the largest supplier of silver in the world.

In the first years following conquest, the Spanish exported 32 million pounds of silver and , pounds of gold Marks Spain spent much of this wealth in costly wars in a failed attempt to rule Europe. The depopulation of large regions of the Americas also led Europeans to search for cheap labor. Perhaps the most important consequence of the Colombian Exchange was the forced migration and enslavement of millions of people.

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While the Spanish conquered Mexico and Peru, the Portuguese subjugated Brazil and, as a result, led the way in trafficking enslaved people to the Americas. They started in in western Africa Getz Wherever the sugarcane crop dominated, so too did plantations with enslaved labor. Unlike Mexico or Peru, the Portuguese colony of Brazil lacked precious metals near the coast. So the Portuguese developed sugar plantations outfitted with enslaved Africans.

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The Portuguese took sugarcane grass from its native homeland in South and East Asia, transplanted it to Brazil, and then sold the sugar to Europe and colonial North America. The first truly global trade was also the most nefarious. It set the precedent of using African slaves to create cash crops to be sold abroad in a global market. Eighty percent of the 11 million enslaved Africans who came to the Americas went to sugar plantation regions of Brazil and the Caribbean The slave trade certainly had enormous political, economic, and social implications in western and central Africa.

Europeans could not conquer African nations because many were powerful and because various diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, made it extremely dangerous for Europeans to enter into the interior of the continent. Along the coasts the Portuguese followed by the Spanish and English traded firearms, tobacco, cotton, Indian cloth, iron bars, and liquor for enslaved people.

It is estimated that central and west Africans acquired over 20 million guns from Europeans during the slave trade, mostly between and Getz This global trade shattered the stability, wealth, and human capital of African nations. On the brutal Middle Passage alone, 1 to 1. If they decided not to make the trade, their neighbors could grow more powerful by amassing the powerful European war technology. The terrible trade led to internal African wars and destruction. In many regions of western and central Africa, the traumatic loss of so many men had long-term negative consequences for individuals, families, communities, and nations.

Connected to all major continents on the planet, the slave trade was a key aspect of the first fully global trade. The sugar and slave trade became known as the triangular trade because the English colonies in North America were also involved. The Portuguese sold Brazilian sugar to New Englanders who turned the sugar into rum and sailed across the Atlantic to trade the liquor for enslaved Africans.

Africa, Brazil, and the English colonies in America who also produced tobacco completed the points of the triangle. By , the consumption of sugar in England had increased 2, percent from So, the first truly global trade flourished on addictive substances—alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, and sugar. This new global system, with the conquest of the Americas at its core, gradually and greatly enriched the new European imperial powers—especially, early on, the Spanish and the Portuguese, and then later the English and the French.

From an economic rather than a moral perspective, Europeans had stumbled onto a package of unstoppable global free-market advantages: extremely cheap labor; free and abundant land; rich natural resources, including precious minerals; and abundant markets around the world to sell their products. Although they were latecomers to the Americas, the British stepped into the global trade network and exploited the vast market, first through piracy, then trade, and finally by selling manufactured goods, such as textiles.

While the Spanish wasted much of their newfound wealth on wars in Europe, the incipient British banking system helped finance new businesses and stimulate older ones, in industries such as textiles and shipbuilding. The conquest and settlement of the Americas is the key starting point for understanding the rise of European economic and imperial power.

The future’s fresh

Throughout the early modern era, Europeans struggled to compete with Asian manufactured products in a free market. The rest of the world found cheap Chinese silk and Indian cotton too irresistible and inexpensive. When free-market competition failed them, European governments simply barred Asian products. Great Britain banned the import of Indian cloth and Chinese silk in , and France did the same 10 years later Marks In France, it became illegal to even wear Asian cloth, much less buy it. Then European industries simply replaced Asian products—cotton, silk, sugar, indigo, pearls, and, later, coffee—with cheaper substitutions from the Americas.

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This policy, what economists call import substitution , worked wonders. As late as , Asia still produced eighty percent of goods traded in the world Marks But the newfound or new-stolen? Now, we can return to the wisdom of the famous free-market economist Adam Smith.